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Author Guidelines

Citation Reference Style

Citation styles are set up to give the reader immediate information about sources used in a text. Citing information discussed in an article also clearly shows to the reader that a particular idea or concept is not the author's own, and so helps protect them from accusations of plagiarism. In addition to this, by follow a set standard of rules in regards to presentation, a particular journal is therefore able present their articles in a uniform and professional way. 


In-Text Citations

In regards to citations used in your article, the references should be numbered and appear in the order they appear in the text. When referring to a reference in the text of the document, put the number of the reference in square brackets. Eg: [1].

To refer readers to specific page numbers in a text, use the number of the reference followed by a colon (:) and the page numbers.

Example: Johnson suggests that citing will lead to a decrease in being cited for plagiarism [1:28-29].

Note: The [1] refers to the numbered reference. And the 28-29 refers to the pages being cited.


End-of-text Reference List

At the end of your article, a reference section should be included. This lists all the square bracket numbers used (in order), along with their full reference information (see below for an example).



[1] W.K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-35.

[2] E.E. Rebecca. “Alternating current fed power supply.” U.S. Patent 7 897 777, Nov. 3, 1987.

[3] M. Duncan. “Engineering Concepts on Ice. Internet:, Oct. 25, 2000 [Nov. 29, 2003].

[4] J. Aston. “RE: new location, okay?” Personal e-mail (Jul. 3, 2003).


As can be seen above, depending on your reference type (i.e. book, journal, internet etc), the rules on how to present the information can differ.

Guidlines on how to present some of the more common reference types have therefore been provided for you below.


Books (printed)

Author(s). Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to).

Example: W.K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-35.


Book Chapters (printed)

Author(s). “Chapter title” in Book title, edition, volume. Editors name, Ed. Publishing location: Publishing company, year, pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to).

Example: J.E. Bourne. “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3. J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp.15-67.


Journals (printed)

Author(s). “Article title”. Journal title, vol., pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to), date.

Example: G. Pevere. “Infrared Nation.” The International Journal of Infrared Design, vol. 33, pp. 56-99, Jan. 1979.


Articles from Conference  Proceedings (published)

Author(s). “Article title.” Conference proceedings, year, pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to).

Example: D.B. Payne and H.G. Gunhold. “Digital sundials and broadband technology,” in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 1986, pp. 557-998.


Papers Presented at Conferences (unpublished)

Author(s). “Paper’s title,” Conference name, Location, year.

Example: B. Brandli and M. Dick. “Engineering names and concepts,” presented at the 2nd Int. Conf. Engineering Education, Frankfurt, Germany, 1999.



Author(s)/Inventor(s). “Name/Title.” Country where patent is registered. Patent number, date.

Example: E.E. Rebecca. “Alternating current fed power supply.” U.S. Patent 7 897 777, Nov. 3, 1987.


Books (digital)

Author. (year, Month day). Book title. (edition). [Type of medium]. Vol. (issue). Available: site/path/file [date accessed].

Example: S. Calmer. (1999, June 1). Engineering and Art. (2nd edition). [On-line]. 27(3). Available: [May 21, 2003].


Journals (digital)

Author. (year, month). “Article title.” Journal title. [Type of medium]. Vol. (issue), pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to). Available: site/path/file [date accessed].

Example: A. Paul. (1987, Oct.). “Electrical properties of flying machines.” Flying Machines. [On- line]. 38(1), pp. 778-998. Available: www.flyingmachjourn/properties/ [Dec. 1, 2003].


World Wide Web

Author(s)*. “Title.” Internet: complete URL, date updated* [date accessed].

Example: M. Duncan. “Engineering Concepts on Ice." Internet:, Oct. 25, 2000 [Nov. 29, 2003].



Author(s)*. “Article title.” Newspaper/Magazine name (month, year), section, pp (i.e. page numbers, from-to).

Example: B. Bart. “Going Faster.” Globe and Mail (Oct. 14, 2002), sec. A p.1. “Telehealth in Alberta.” Toronto Star (Nov. 12, 2003), sec. G pp. 1-3.


Dissertations and Theses

Author. “Title.” Degree level, school, location, year.

Example: S. Mack. “Desperate Optimism.” M.A. thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, 2000.



Lecturer(s). Occasion, Topic: “Lecture title.” Location, date.

Example: S. Maw. Engg 251. Class Lecture, Topic: “Speed skating.” ICT 224, Faculty of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Oct. 31, 2003.



Author. Subject line of posting. Personal E-mail or Correspondence (date).

Example: J. Aston. “RE: new location, okay?” Personal e-mail (Jul. 3, 2003).


Internet - Newsgroups

Author or Topic*, “Title,” Complete network address, date when it was updated [date accessed].

Example: G.G. Gavin. “Climbing and limb torsion #3387,” USENET: sci.climb.torsion, Apr. 19, 2000 [Oct. 4, 2002].

* if you can’t find this information, exclude it.

Submission Preparation Checklist

All submissions must meet the following requirements.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and citation requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • Any figures and images used in text, should also be uploaded in high resolution (300dpi), and seperately from the main text.

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